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 Gibran Khalil Gibran

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة

نقاط : 88660
تاريخ الانضمام : 31/12/1969

مُساهمةموضوع: Gibran Khalil Gibran   الأربعاء يناير 05, 2011 10:51 pm

Gibran Khalil Gibran bin Mikhael bin Saad, (6 January 1883 to 10 April 1931) of the descendants of Joseph Gebran Maronite Alepeshalani, the poet of a Lebanese American, born in the town of human northern Lebanon and died in New York with tuberculosis, he traveled with his mother and his siblings to America in 1895, he studied Photography and returned to Lebanon, after four years in order to Paris for three years, and there is depth in the art of photography. Returned to the United States of America again, and specifically to New York, and founded with his "Pen League"and was its president. Collected some of his essays in the book "Alibdaa and Prices. " His life:He was born philosopher and writer, poet and painter of the family of small, poor town in a human in the January 6, 1883. And was then belonging to the Provincial Mount Lebanon, Ottoman Empire. His father was the third husband Khalil Gibran complete mercy of his mother that had a son named Peter from a previous marriage and then gave birth to Gibran and his sisters, Mariana and Sultana.

His father, Khalil Gibran Saad, a patron of working cattle and spend his time drinking and playing cards. His mood was arrogant, and not loving person, as he remembers Gibran, who have suffered from lack of understanding and provoke him to anger. And his mother was full of mercy, of a respectable family and religious background, and was able to take care of her physically and morally, emotionally and Halil had married after the death of her first husband's second marriage and revocation. Was very tan, and thin, and he has a beautiful voice, inherited from her father.

Did not go Gibran to school because his father did not give this matter the importance, therefore, he went from time to time to the village priest, who quickly realized his seriousness and intelligence Vonfq hours to teach him the alphabet, reading and writing, thus opening the front of the field of reading and to identify the history, science and literature.

Thanks to his mother, learning small Gibran Arabic, and trained on the drawing and music. As noted a tendency to have a drawing, photo album supplied by Leonardo da Vinci, who remained an admirer of silence. After a long time, he wrote: "I have never seen work of Leonardo da Vinci only confused or feeling deep down that part of his soul to infiltrate my soul ...".

Left his mother a deep imprint on his character, did not fail to commend in the "Broken Wings": "The fresher what caused the lips of mankind is the word" mother ", and the most beautiful call is," O my mother. "Small word great filled with hope and love and turn everything in the heart human tenderness and sweetness and tenderness. the mother is everything in this life, is a consolation in sorrow, and hope in despair, strength in weakness, is the fountain of compassion, kindness and compassion and forgiveness, the one who loses his mother loses breaststroke entrusted with the head and hand blessed and kind guarded ... " .

Gibran spent his early years, apathetic, in spite of arguments between his parents and falling from above the slope where he had left shoulder sprain. Schooled in Arabic and Syriac at the hands of Father Germanos. And knowledge of Father Simon, reading and writing in human primary school. The author tells his friend Mikhail Naima that Gibran was a small piece of coal is used for charting the first drawings on the walls. It is said that the landfill days (the age of four years) and a paper in the sand and wait to germinate.

In the age of ten signed Gibran from a rock and Kadisha Valley and fractured his left shoulder, suffered throughout his life.

Did not stop the family were suffering from poverty and the indifference of the father, until the Ottoman soldiers came in (1891) and arrested him invite him in prison because of poor tax administration, which was stupied. Convicted, and stripped of all its wealth and only sold their house, forced the family to get off at some relatives, but the mother decided that the only solution to the problems of the family is the migration to the United States in pursuit of a better life.
[Edit] Return to Lebanon

The family of Gibran, especially his mother to early fame will harm him, and he does not need to return to Lebanon to continue his studies, especially in order to master the Arabic language .. He had been raised to the increasing frequency among Gibran "Dai", which were not heard calls for satisfaction, concern the family. And got worse after he signed a girl trapped in a trader in the thirty-year-old, and frequent absence from home for the night. He was infatuated with another woman before ... The thought of a complete re her teenage son to Lebanon. Did not object Gibran returned to Beirut, speaking English language is weak, and almost forget the Arabic also.

He traveled to Beirut on August 30, 1898. Was among the belongings of the Gospels and the Book of Thomas Blvinic in mythology, the artist discovered the emerging Gibran drama Prometheus, and the myth of Orpheus, and the Persian prophet Zoroaster, Alwithagorsip, philosophy, mythology and Indian ...

Gibran immediately rushed to a human, and the arms of his father, and relatives and friends flocked to see the "American." Among them were teacher, poet and doctor Salim Daher, who advised him to pursue his studies in the "Collège de la Sagiis", which remained there for nearly three years. Despite the delay in [classical Arabic, "asked" to accept the boy in the top row and not to ask him three months ago. And by those in charge of the "conditions" Jubran, who liked the boldness and strength of character. One of the professors Father Joseph Smith, the poet and playwright who discovered the treasures accompanied by the Arabic language, and Ibn Khaldun, and Al-Mutanabbi, Ibn Sina, poets and mystics. Fluent and began to express his thoughts in their mother tongue, and wrote the first texts in Arabic. And learn French and take the reading literature. He recalls that the Gibran school was strict; and he did not comply with the teachers; and it was less likely to be punished the rest of the students, because it was studying a lot. Was in class the idea of always wander in, and draw, and covers books and books of drawings depicting his teachers. Gibran was in the eyes of classmates strange, long-haired, who refuses to story, and his unusual.

At the beginning of the year 1900, with the turn of the century-Walid, known as the Joseph Gebran Hwaik together and issued a Beacon Journal Ihrranha and were put together with Gibran fees alone. And survival by working together until he finished his studies Gibran clear superiority in Arabic, French and Hair (1902) and was in 1901 one of his poems were selected for the award of merit. And he longed passionately to receive this award, because the excellent student in this school is the most talent in poetry, he said.
[Edit] back to America .. And tragedy in waiting

The links to news about the illness of his family members, as was his relationship with his father, moving from bad to worse, he left Lebanon to return to Boston, but unfortunately for him came after the death of his sister Sultana. Within a few months his mother was admitted to hospital for surgery to remove some cancer cells. His brother Peter decided to leave the business and travel to Cuba. And so it was on the Gibran to taking care of the family and physical health. But tragedy followed by a series faster than they can afford. What is broadcasting that Peter has returned from Cuba ill killer is (tuberculosis) and died a few days later, on 12 March 1903 have failed operation conducted by the mother in the eradication of the disease and love ruled on 28 June of the same year.

In addition to all this was Gibran live another kind of crisis, he was willing to become proficient in writing in English, because it opens the front room to welcome a lot of just writing in the Arabic-language newspaper in America Kalmhajr not read only a few people. But Inclaizih was very weak. Did not know what to do, was leave home and wander on the face to escape the image of death and suffering. And increased the punishment that the beautiful girl that he had enjoyed the emotional link, and they were about to be married at the time, Josephine Peabody, unable to help him practice, it was only criticism of his writings in English and then leave to try to find a solution alone. While his friend, the other painter Holland Day was not able to help him in the literary and assisted in the technical field.

With the dawn of the twentieth century, Boston, named Athens of America, a vital intellectual center has attracted renowned artists and promising UNU. Some were willing to get out of the strongholds of the material to search for ways and explore new artistic mythology and civilizations of the East and even the esoteric and spiritual sciences. Gibran and diving in this society that thrives Bustunai Sufi movements had told her influential divine wisdom created by the Russian aristocracy in 1875 Helena Petrova Blavatsky seen by the heritage of India, Tibet and encouraged the rise of Buddhism and Hinduism. Gradually, it became clear that Eastern spirituality, which mainly can find fertile ground in this environment-hungry mystical ....

In the January 6, 1904, the "Die" on the display of Gibran paintings in the spring. Not in front of him only four months. And impacts from the world of "William Blake", performed many duties overflowing with symbolism. His work has attracted a lot of curious, but a little bit of buyers. A number of critics have admiration for them.

By Josephine to a woman named Mary of knowledge Haskell (1904), pages Fajtt so a new phase of Gibran's life.

Mary Haskell was an independent woman in her personal life and grow Gibran ten years, has played an important role in his life since they met. I have noticed that Gibran does not attempt to write in English, but written in Arabic first, then translated. Vensahth and encouraged him to write much in English directly. Thus, claimed Gibran published his writings in Arabic newspapers first and then collected and issued in books, and trained at the same time to write directly in English.

Gibran's intention to search for more lucrative work of the graphic. When he knew that the Lebanese young men called "the Secretary-Ghraib", the Arabic newspaper in New York called "The Immigrant", approached him and showed him his drawings and writings and poems. By the "strange" for two dollars a week for Gibran. The first article has appeared in "The Immigrant" entitled to "see". Was filled with text Baghannaiip gave a speech for "the human heart, prisoner and victim of the laws of material creatures."

On November 12, 1904, burned down a building exhibition "Die", and brought all of its assets, including the fees Gibran. Under the shock of the fire, which he described as a new scene of the tragedy that had experienced two years ago, it became Gibran writes more than paints. And summed up, "the Secretary Ghraib," which makes a regular on "ideas", and then replace it with the title "tear and a smile", where it was Gibran talks about love, beauty, youth and wisdom. Published his "immigrant" in 1905 a book entitled "Music."
[Edit] Paris .. A new phase

Paris was in the early twentieth century artists dream of the whole world. After his arrival a short time, lived in "Montparnasse", and soon joined the "Academy Julian," more Academies popular in Paris, graduated from major artists, "Matisse" and "Bonnard", and "Leger" ... And joined as a student listener to "Faculty of Fine Arts." His spare time, Gibran was spent walking on the banks of the River Seine and Mtskaaa night in the old neighborhoods of Paris. After leaving Paris later, he said to his friend, "Joseph Hoayek," who lived with him two years in the City of Light: "Every evening, returning my soul to Paris and get lost between their homes. Every morning I wake up I am thinking of those days that we have been among the temples of art and the world of dreams ... ".

Gibran could not stay longer in the "Academy Julian," where he found that the tips of his teacher did not give him any benefit. To be sure, his style could not satisfy the romantic spirit of Gibran. In the beginning of February 1909, found a new artist on the professor: "Pierre Marcel Birono", "the great artist and wonderful painter and mystic ..", in the words of Gibran. But he finally left, after the French artist advised him to wait until the end and allow for each drawing, Dictionary, Vjubran insatiable knowledge, creativity and willing to burn the stages ...

Frequency then to the Academy "Kolarose", specialized in graphic form, which was host to foreign artists, but Gibran would have preferred to work alone and freely in his studio, visit galleries, museums, museum of the Louvre, which would spend long hours in the halls spacious. He gave lessons in drawing, for some students. And engaged in an ambitious project: portraits by celebrities, and was started by the American Balnhat "Brthlt", without knowing precisely that he had met with these.

In the meantime, his father died. He wrote to Mary Haskell says: "I lost my dad .. he died in the old house, where he was born 65 years ago .. I wrote his friends that he blessed me before handing over the soul. I can only see shadows sad for the days past when he was my father, and mother, Peter, as well as my sister Queen of living and smiling in the sun ...".

Gibran was always in doubt, ambitious, and ideally, mistaking it can reconfigure the world, and sought to persuade others of his ideas and theories about art, nature ..., and worried, and many smoking, and a big reader, have re-read the "good" and "Rilke" and " Tolostoy "and" Nietzsche, "wrote texts in Arabic and his associates described as" sad and Oazip. "

At that time, Paris was submitted to the large number of advocates of independence, the Syrians and the Lebanese, the claimants the right to self-determination for the Arab countries under the Ottoman yoke. There were secret societies which claim to grant the Arabs in the Ottoman Empire of their political rights and the recognition of Arabic as an official language ... Gibran and frequency to this community and drink ideas. He believed that the Arabs should rise up against the Ottomans and free themselves.

Wish Gibran in the definition of his art. And succeeded in reaching the most famous Paris Exhibition Annual Spring Exhibition, where he was able to introduce the panel entitled "Autumn", hoping to pass the "Rodin" Great Vijb and appraises them. The French artist, and stop for a moment before, and shook his head, and continued his visit. Then, create paintings that claimed he was invited to view the article in the International Exhibition of Fine Arts in Paris, who was invited to the formal. However, the instability Otabh, abandoned the project, leaving Paris was not clear to him after that never return to the city of beauty and the arts, nor to his hometown of Lebanon. Did not respond and the chance to see Italy, which has long dream to visit.
[Edit] left Paris to return to Boston

1908 Gibran left to Paris to study art and there he met his colleague in the study again in Beirut Joseph Hwaik. He stayed in Paris for nearly two years and then returned to America after a brief visit to London accompanied by writer Amin Rihani.

Gibran arrived to Boston in December 1910, where he proposed marriage to Mary Haskell, and move to New York to escape from the vicinity of the Lebanese community there is a petition to the field of intellectual and literary and artistic welcome. But Mary refused to marry him because of the age difference, though they have promised to maintain their friendship and care for his sister Mariana unmarried and non-educated.

Thus, Gibran moved to New York and did not leave until his death. There is known a semblance of stability has enabled him to leave to his literary and artistic stood draw many of the paintings of top celebrities such as Rodin and Sarah Bernard, Gustav Yang and others.
[Edit] Mary dear

Upon arrival to Boston at the beginning of November, rushed to see his sister, "Marina." He then went to meet "Mary", which told him to immediately order them to keep the artist under the auspices that it was ready to continue to give him seventy-five dollars which was provided to him during his Parisian. Rental house and advised him to practice his art more freely. And helped him improve his English. And strengthened their friendship. On 10 December, had visited her on the occasion of Eid the thirty-seventh birthday, and offered her marriage. But they refused saying it ten years older than him. And wrote to her after they wounded him in this rejection. And decided to "Mary" to back down and accept. I refused and then returned once again .. Perhaps because of its relations with other women, or for fear of marriage to a foreigner. Gibran sought and then to sink his disappointment at work. And soon felt the cold city of Boston and narrow and it is smaller than the ambitions of art, especially after the stay in Paris, spacious and warm, other than the wound that left him a "Mary." And decided to leave for New York. Packs his luggage is sorry, carrying with him a manuscript of "Broken Wings" and a copy of "Thus Spoke Zarathustra" Nietzsche.
[Edit] New York

Said French poet and writer "Paul Claudl" after his arrival in New York in 1838: "For the stranger, which is located here, ignorant of everything and the reasons for everything, the early days .. amazing." However, Gibran understood immediately: "New York is not to be a place where one can find comfort." Began his visit the Museum, "Metropolitan Mijsm F Art," which came out of him surprised. Meet the Lebanese community, and some famous New York. In the meantime, was "Mary" to New York and found the plans for the panel "Isis." Visited some museums and wild. After that, they returned together to Boston, where friendly ripe for a holiday in the west of the country. And then offered to Gibran the amount of five thousand dollars all at once instead of intermittent small amounts. Before the offer and insisted that it recommend to her what she has, in recognition of Bjamilha. The books will astonished his friends. Recommended that all of his paintings and drawings to "Mary" or if deceased, to "individual Holland Day," and literary Bmktootath to his sister and his books in Lebanon to the library of a human.

Took advantage of Gibran summer to end, "Broken Wings" and Rochp Panel "Isis", and started to draw new paintings, and decorated fees book of Ameen Rihani, wrote two articles, one entitled "slavery", where condemned slavery, which leads the people in accordance with the laws of another people, and the other "sons of my mother "revels in its own nationals who do not revolt in the face of the occupier. And attended a lecture by the poet and playwright Irish "William Yeats" (Nobel Prize 1923), and Tarefa and met repeatedly.

On 18 October, Gibran returned to New York and lived in the building, "Tnt Street Studio" devoted to the artists. This year, published his novel "Broken Wings", his most romantic, and Germination by his style and the idea of future.

On April 15, 1912, shook the world sinking of the "Titanic", which was carrying hundreds of people, including 85 Lebanese, 52 of them drowned. The disaster was a shock to Gibran, who glorified him sleep that night. On the same day, he met with Abdul-Baha, the son of Baha'u'llah, founder of the Baha'i in Iran, spiritual, and invited him to deliver a speech before members of the "golden ring" on the unity of religions.

At the beginning of autumn, Gibran met French writer and novelist, "Pierre Loti", who came to New York to attend a play "Bent the sky" written by the daughter of French writer and poet, "Theophile Gauthier." The cross him, "T" for cinnamon from the bustle of America gave him advice: "Save your soul and return to the east; Your place is not here!".

How can we imagine Gibran in this period of his life? Had the features of the people of his village: the face waved Balsmrp, and the nose prominent, and Sharp black and dense, and Hajpan Mqosn Kthan, and hair crimped a bit, and lips Mmtlitan; and forehead broad majestic like a dome, and the eyes Iqztan Tnman the intelligence of the person of short stature with a smile bright suggestive innocent children; "electrified, and mobile Kallahb" (Mary); and nature are closer to grief; lover of isolation ("Unity storm silence uproot all Ogassanna dead"), and find pleasure in work; noses, and deep sensitivity, and tolerates no criticism; independent and revolutionary in nature, refuse any form of injustice.

He smokes too much: "Today, he wrote to Mary, I smoked more than twenty cigarettes. Smoking for me is fun and is usually not an authoritarian ...". And night, to remain alert and continue to work, it deals with strong coffee and take a cold bath. However, the way of life to him started exhausting his body and give it the features of old age.

In 1913, he met a number of famous New Yorkers, the art world, such as the poet, "Witter Boehner." In February, he abandoned the "Mary" about a series of paintings and payment of the debt, and wished to get rid of this situation that bother him. He returned to complete the set of Portrehath, ad hoc Ihaddahallmchtera American "Thomas Edison" and the other to the world of Swiss psychologist "Carl Gustav Jung," who accepted to sit for Ismhma Gibran. And he met the philosopher French "Henri Bergson", which promise to allow his depiction in Paris, apologizing that time because of exhaustion from travel, actress French "Sarah Brnhardt": "In short, it was a nice confirms Gibran. Told me joyfully ventured from her travels to Syria and Egypt, and told me that her mother they speak Arabic music and the language was still alive in itself. " Accepted to sit down to paint it, but after all, "so as not to show her face." They have become the year of the sixty-ninth.

In April 1913, appeared in the New York magazine "Arts", which was founded by the poet Al-Homsi microscopic relative petition. And publish articles in which Gibran very diverse and prose poems. And it fell on literary studies devoted to two senior Sufis, al-Ghazali and Ibn Imposer, who influenced Bovkarhma.
[Edit] writer Marie increase

"Mi" is the name chosen by the woman worried that look, the sea, sometimes calm and transparent, and the other rebellious. I was born in 1886, of a Lebanese father and a Palestinian mother. I left her family in 1908 to Cairo. Mastered several languages, and showed exceptional talent in cash and literature and the press. Transformed circuit in Cairo to a literary salon, and began to receive the senior writers and intellectuals, as Taha Hussein and Mahmoud Abbas El Akkad and Jacob vicissitudes. Gibran was discovered in 1912, through his article "On my birth," which appeared in the press. Style and their families. I read "Broken Wings" and departed in his view of women in this novel. Trussela, and exchanged in their letters of praise and talked about literature. Narrated her daily worries, and his childhood and his dreams and his work. And held their rapport and love.
And death

Gibran's health began to worsen. On 9 April, I found the gate is dying and he died Gibran on April 10, 1931 in a hospital in New York, in the forty-eighth after suffering cancer, was transferred three days later to his final resting place in a cemetery, "Mount Benedict," next to his mother and his sister and his half-brother. And immediately organized a funeral in New York and Buenos Aires and Sao Paulo where there are communities of Lebanese important. After the approval of his sister's "Mariana", decided to transfer the body of Gibran on 23 July to his hometown in Lebanon. And received in Beirut by large crowds of people lead by an official delegation. After a brief ceremony attended by the Head of State, transfer to a human, which was laid to rest on the votes of the church bells. Next to his grave, inscribed with these words: "The word I want to see them written on my grave: I am alive like you and I am now at your side. Turned a blind your eyes, look around you, and Stroni ....". His sister worked on the negotiation and the Carmelite nuns of them purchased the monastery of Mar Sarkis, who was transferred to the body of Gibran, and remains now a museum and a popular destination for visitors.

In addition, wild, which was devoted to the artist in his native country (Jibran Museum, and the field of Gibran launched in central Beirut in 2000), there are sites, statues, and commemorative plaques honoring his memory: in the United States Nbban Tzcaran Gibran, one in Boston, and the other in Washington. And includes a number of months, many American museums of paintings Gibran. The Lebanese community in Brazil has also launched a cultural center called "Gibran".

And made many Arab artists and songs from the words of Gibran Khalil Gibran, including singer Fairouz and Magda El-Roumi, and finally the celebrated artist Tony Qdez Jubilee 125 in the birth of poet and writer in 2008 in several concerts and fired two works from the words of Gibran.

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Gibran Khalil Gibran
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